Glaucoma Symptoms

Glaucoma Symptoms: Causes, Types, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Glaucoma, often dubbed the “silent robber of sight,” is a popular cause of vision loss, affecting many globally. If action is taken in time and suitable treatment is given, it can reduce or even eliminate this problem. This article will give you more knowledge on glaucoma’s signs, types, sources, and diagnostics tests conducted for diagnosis, followed by treatments recommended to prevent and control its risk factors so that we can ensure your long-term visual clarity with early detection.

Types of Glaucoma

Glaucoma Symptoms evident

When it comes to different types of glaucoma, the three primary forms are open-angle glaucoma, angle closure glaucoma, and normal tension. Open-angle is commonly found with no signs in its early stages but an increase in eye pressure due to incorrect drainage. Closed-angle happens when the iris ends up too close to where fluid should be draining from, resulting in severe pressure in the eye. Lastly, though eyeball pressures remain within healthy parameters for this type, harm can still be inflicted on optic nerves and deteriorating vision over time. Knowing these various kinds makes diagnosis easier for those experiencing concerning symptoms that could stem from any one of them and helps ensure timely intervention before permanent damage sets in if necessary. Next, we’re going to dive deep into each one of them so you can have a better understanding:

Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is like the stealthy common cold of the eye world, making up nearly 90% of glaucoma cases. It sneaks in when the eye’s natural fluid doesn’t drain as it should, pushing up the internal eye pressure. This sneaky pressure hike can harm our precious optic nerve, potentially dimming our vision if we don’t catch it in time. Stay alert, get regular check-ups, and let’s tackle it together before it dims the world around us.

For early detection and treatment, patients must undergo regular ophthalmological exams whenever necessary so POAG does not worsen over time, thus resulting in vision loss due to its impact on the optic nerve’s structure or function.

Angle-Closure Glaucoma

Closed-angle glaucoma, or acute angle closure glaucoma, is a medical condition of the iris that blocks the drainage area. This blockage can result in an abrupt or gradual increase of pressure inside one’s eye. While it isn’t common, possible warning signs such as severe eye pain, blurred vision, halos around lights, and minor headaches should not be overlooked. The swift diagnosis and treatment of this type of glaucoma are essential if someone wishes to avoid potential severe pain in their eyesight along with complete blindness, even being at risk without urgent care.

Normal-Tension Glaucoma

Patients suffering from normal tension glaucoma may have no difference in their eye pressure compared to those without the condition; they still demonstrate signs of vision loss and optic nerve damage. While it is uncertain what exactly causes this particular type of deterioration in the nerves related to sight, reduced blood flow or a higher sensitivity could be at play.

Early recognition and tracking down changes for persons affected by normal-tension glaucoma can help deal effectively with this ailment as well as prevent loss of eyesight.

Understanding Glaucoma Symptoms



When the eye doesn’t drain its internal fluid (aqueous humour) effectively, the resulting increased pressure can harm the optic nerve – a vital player in our ability to see. Glaucoma ranks second among the leading causes of blindness. While it can touch lives at any age, those over 60 face a heightened risk. Remember, early detection and care are key, so stay informed and proactive about your eye health, and let us have a closer look at the symptoms of each type:

Open-Angle Glaucoma Symptoms

Open-angle glaucoma, a frequent problem, begins without any evident noticeable symptoms. As it advances, patients may notice blind spots in their peripheral vision, tunnel vision, difficulty adjusting to low light settings, halos around lights, and blurred sight. Eventually, considerable damage could be done to the optic nerve before these signs are noticed, so that is why early detection by undergoing regular eye examinations should occur to halt harm being caused.

Angle-Closure Glaucoma Symptoms

Angle-closure glaucoma, a not-usual type of disease, can have early signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, halos around lights, mild headaches, or eye pain. It happens when the iris bulges outwards, blocking the drainage angle partially or completely, resulting in increased intraocular pressure. Identifying these indications quickly is key to successful treatment and avoiding serious discomfort and visual impairment progression.

Normal-Tension Glaucoma Symptoms

Normal tension glaucoma is a special form of the condition that occurs when individuals exhibit damage to their optic nerve and suffer from blind spots despite having normal eye pressure. The precise reason for this type of impairment in normal-tension glaucoma still remains unknown. It could involve issues with sensitivity or reduced circulation around the optical nerve.

The prompt recognition and close tracking of early symptoms associated with normal tension glaucoma can play an essential role in controlling its progression as well as avoiding any deterioration concerning sight.


Causes of Glaucoma

Congenital glaucoma is caused by a combination of elevated intraocular pressure, reduced drainage of the transparent fluid known as aqueous humour, and an individual’s genetic makeup. Imbalanced production to draining can lead to high levels of eye pressure, which damages the optic nerve. Certain genes have been identified with increased rates or severity regarding both raised eyeball pressures and harm done by this condition to your optical nerves. So, let’s take a closer look at the main causes of glaucoma:

Intraocular Pressure

The main cause of glaucoma is intraocular pressure, which causes damage to the optic nerve, leading to vision loss; this happens when fluid in the eye (aqueous humour) doesn’t drain or produces at a balanced rate resulting in elevated eye pressure that puts extra force on the optics.

Periodic examinations for checking one’s ocular state are vital for early detection and control of this ailment to prevent permanent sight impairment due to increased pressure within our eyes.

Aqueous Humour Drainage

The fluid flow from the eye is regulated by aqueous humour drainage, thus preventing normal pressure in the eye and consequently protecting its optic nerve. When this drainage process isn’t properly functional, it can lead to increased intraocular pressure, which may have devastating consequences: irreparable damage to the visual field with potential vision loss, as seen in glaucoma cases. To avoid irreversible complications, detecting and treating these conditions early before destruction ensues is essential.

Genetic Factors

The risk of glaucoma development in some individuals may be linked to genetic factors. Certain genes that have been discovered could cause increased eye pressure and result in optic nerve damage, implying that the condition can be passed down from family members.

In order to make informed decisions about their eye health before any physical symptoms develop, genetic testing is available to assess potential danger levels for those at risk.

Glaucoma Diagnosis and Tests

Glaucoma Symptoms check

Regular eye examinations, including a comprehensive exam, visual acuity test, and dilated eye examination, are the key to detecting glaucoma. These are necessary to evaluate the optic nerve head for any changes or abnormalities, as well as measure intraocular pressure levels and signs of possible visual field defects that may be present in its early stages; this allows physicians to pinpoint potential warning signs quickly while providing patients with greater opportunities for successful treatment outcomes later on down the line.

Comprehensive Eye Exam

Eye pressure, optic nerve, and the visual field are all important to determine during a thorough eye exam for glaucoma diagnosis. These tests can detect any warning signs of this condition in time so that intervention is taken promptly to prevent vision loss. It’s vital to have regular comprehensive check-ups as they pinpoint potential risk factors, as well as monitor general ocular health over longer periods.

Visual Acuity Test

Frequent visual acuity tests are important for maintaining good eye health and preventing vision loss. They measure a person’s ability to see at multiple distances, allowing doctors to spot early glaucoma signs by assessing both eyes’ central and side sight. Early detection through these exams is vital for successfully managing the condition, allowing prompt intervention when needed.

Dilated fundus examination

A dilated eye exam can detect any signs of damage to the optic nerve and retina. In this procedure, eye drops are used to widen the pupils so an expert in vision care can fully examine these structures.

Regularly scheduling a dilated examination is very important for recognising glaucoma and preventing more harm from being done to one’s sight.

Glaucoma Treatment Options

When it comes to treating glaucoma, there are a few potential options: medications, laser treatment, and surgery. These treatments have different risks and benefits, which must be considered depending on the individual’s condition to minimise the chances of permanent vision loss. Early intervention is essential for better results. Sticking with recommended plans will help decrease the risk of severe sight damage due to glaucoma.


Several eye drops come to the rescue to keep eye pressure in check and put the brakes on glaucoma’s progression. Among these are prostaglandin analogues, beta blockers, alpha agonists, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, and rho kinase inhibitors. Sticking to your ophthalmologist’s instructions when on these meds is paramount, ensuring they do their job while steering clear of unwanted visual hitches. If something feels off or you’re uneasy post-treatment, don’t hesitate to call your doctor. We can tweak things to suit you better. Always remember, we’ve got your back every step of your journey.

Laser Treatment

Laser treatment is a viable and effective choice for treating glaucoma. It facilitates improved fluid drainage from the eye, thus reducing eye pressure. A specific kind of laser technique called Selective Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) stimulates more output through the eyepiece’s pores by allowing better expulsion, which decreases intraocular pressure accordingly.

This procedure can be used as either first-line therapy or in conjunction with taking prescribed eyedrops to help treat glaucoma further.


Surgery is a viable option for treating glaucoma that has shown great promise. It offers rapid relief of eye pressure when compared to eyedrops or lasers and typically yields superior results in lowering ocular tension. Treatment options include trabeculectomy or implanting an aqueous shunt; both methods have proven efficient at reducing intraocular pressure while enhancing patient outcomes.

Yet, each situation should be evaluated carefully, as advantages may come with certain risks associated with the procedure.

Risk Factors and Prevention

Risk factors for glaucoma include age, familial history, and other medical conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. Detection in its early stages and regular eye check-ups can help mitigate the chances of developing this condition, which leads to vision loss. Taking precautions based on knowledge of these risk factors is vital if we wish to protect our sight from being affected by glaucoma.

Risk Factors

The primary risk factors for glaucoma include advanced age, family history, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes or high blood pressure. Angle-closure glaucoma is more probable to occur in individuals with narrow drainage angles. In contrast, open-angle or primary open-angle cases are related to augmented intraocular pressure along with older age, a positive personal past of the disease, and specified health problems like hypertension or diabetes.

Being aware of these dangers can help detect the disorder early on and prevent it from developing further. Regular eye examinations play an essential part, too, when managing potential signs associated with this vision issue.

Prevention Strategies

Your eyes are windows to the world, and just like our favourite views, they deserve regular check-ups. The American Academy of Ophthalmology recommends that those aged 65 or above treat their peepers to an exam every one to two years, even if everything seems A-OK. Think of it as a wellness spa for your eyes! And while we’re on the topic of wellness, a fit body and a balanced plate can work wonders, too. So, lace up those sneakers, relish those greens, and let’s make vision loss a story we never have to tell.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the first signs that glaucoma is developing?

If glaucoma is left untreated, vision loss can occur. To start with, indicators of the condition may be noticeable through halo-like rings around lights or patches in sight, and they might also include tenderness of the eyes accompanied by nausea plus hazy/blurry perception. Red eyes are often associated with it, too.

What triggers glaucoma?

The pressure in the eye can elevate to hazardous levels when a fault develops within its drainage system, resulting in elevated pressures and negatively impacting the optic nerve. Such high eye pressure is one of the biggest contributing factors for glaucoma development.

What does the start of glaucoma feel like?

Sufferers of glaucoma may experience extreme eye discomfort, redness in the eyes, and vision that appears foggy or unclear. Lights can take on a different coloured hue around its edges as well as accompanying intense headaches accompanied by irritation in and around one’s eyeball(s).

If any of these warning signs appear, it is important to contact medical attention immediately for diagnosis and treatment purposes.

Can glaucoma be cured?

No remedy can fully eliminate glaucoma, but through the right treatment plan, it’s possible to slow down its progression and alleviate uncomfortable symptoms.

Glaucoma Symptoms treatmentHow often should I get an eye exam to detect glaucoma?

It is strongly suggested for those aged 65 or over to receive an eye check-up every 1 to 2 years in order to detect glaucoma. The frequency may vary depending on individual risk factors.

How is glaucoma diagnosed?

Diagnosis of glaucoma involves a comprehensive eye examination that includes visual acuity tests, dilated eye exams, and checking the pressure in your eyes. A doctor will also assess the optic nerve and may perform a visual field test to determine if there is a loss of side vision.

Can you prevent glaucoma?

While glaucoma cannot be prevented, its progression can be slowed down with early detection and treatment. Regular eye exams, especially for those over the age of 40 or with a family history of glaucoma, are crucial.

What lifestyle changes can help manage glaucoma?

Regular exercise and a healthy diet can help maintain eye health. It’s also important to avoid smoking and excessive caffeine, as these can increase eye pressure. Remember always to use prescribed eye drops as directed by your doctor.

Can glaucoma lead to complete blindness?

If left untreated, glaucoma can indeed lead to complete blindness. However, with early detection and proper treatment, the majority of people with glaucoma will not lose their sight.

Are there different stages of glaucoma?

Yes, glaucoma typically progresses through several stages, from early-stage to advanced-stage disease. The stages are usually classified based on the angle in the eye that’s affected and the severity of the damage to the optic nerve.


It is important to recognise risk factors, symptoms, and types of glaucoma to protect your vision for the future. Early detection is essential in avoiding irreversible loss of sight as a result of this serious eye condition. Regular exams are necessary to detect any issues before they become too severe, providing ample opportunity for effective treatment that will enable clear eyesight throughout life’s journey ahead.

Contact us at (03) 9070 3580 to schedule a consultation with our specialists. Learn more about the signs of glaucoma and its treatment options!

Note: Any surgical or invasive procedure carries risks. Before proceeding, you should seek a second opinion from an appropriately qualified health practitioner.



“Glaucoma” Cleveland Clinic. Nov 18, 2022

“Glaucoma” National Eye Institution. Apr 21, 2022

Franklin W. Lusby, MD, Ophthalmologist, Lusby Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. “Glaucoma” Medline Plus. Aug 22, 2022

“Glaucoma” MAYO Clinic.,as%20a%20visual%20field%20test

“Risk factors for Glaucoma” Glaucoma Australia.

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